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Apache Compile HOWTO

Luc de Louw

           <luc at delouw.ch>
        
Revision History Revision 1.9.18 2003-02-09 Added XML and Sablotron support to PHP, dropped support for mod_jserv, added mod_jk support, enhanced support for Tomcat, updated software mentioned in the HOWTO, minor SGML enhancements Revision 1.9.17 2002-10-16 Updated software mentioned in the HOWTO, Further SGML enhancements and cleanups like more metadata, callouts and others. Revision 1.9.16 2002-07-04 Updated the software mentioned in the HOWTO, added LogFormat config for mod_gzip. Added gdbm to prerequisites. Lot of SGML enhancements like more metadata, and a revised FAQ section. Revision 1.9.15 2002-06-19 Updated to mod_ssl-2.8.9-1.3.26 and removed the temporary patch. Revision 1.9.14 2002-06-19 Updated to Apache 1.3.26 to fix security-hole CERT CA-2002-17 it is strongly recommended that users should update immediately, Added (temporary) patch to get mod_ssl 2.8.8 working with 1.3.26, Added --without-debug to MySQL configure Revision 1.9.13 2002-06-15 updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO, added how to bind MySQL to a specific IP, some minor changes and corrections Revision 1.9.12 2002-04-22 Added mod_gzip and mod_gunzip, Corrected some typos, updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO, separated the additional modules into an own section. Revision 1.9.11 2002-04-07 Corrected lots of typos (non-technical), updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO Revision 1.9.11-pre1 2002-03-15 Corrected some grammar, updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO Revision 1.9.10 2002-03-09 Corrected some grammar, updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO Revision 1.9.9 2002-02-11 Fixed a major bug in openssl config, restructured the document, added sources for further informations Revision 1.9.8 2002-02-08 Updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO, and fixed some bugs Revision 1.9.7 2001-12-26 Updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO, tested the HOWTO procedures on Linux running on IBM S/390 (zSeries) Machines (See "platforms" for more info), Added some basic support for Tomcat (Binaries only) Revision 1.9.6 2001-10-27 Updates of software mentioned in the HOWTO, and fixed some bugs Revision 1.9.5 2001-08-27 Yet another rewrite in DocBook 3.1 Revision 1.9.4 2001-08-26 Updated the Software-Versions mentioned in the document, corrected some typos Revision 1.9.3 2001-06-23 Current Version 2.0.0-pre3 in Linux DocBook format Revision 1.0.0 2000-08-05 First publication of the html-based document

This document describes howto compile the Apache Webserver with the most important modules like mod_perl, mod_dav, mod_auth_ldap, mod_dynvhost, mod_roaming, mod_jserv, and mod_php


Table of Contents
1. Introduction

1.1. Contributors and Contacts
1.2. Why I wrote this document
1.3. What this document is supposed to be 1.4. What this document doesn't do for you 1.5. Platforms
1.6. Copyright Information
1.7. Disclaimer
1.8. New Versions
1.9. Credits
1.10. Feedback
1.11. Translations
1.12. About the author

2. Prerequisites

2.1. General
2.2. OpenSSL
2.3. GNU Database System
2.4. MySQL
2.5. Building mm

3. Getting, build and install Apache with its basic modules

3.1. Get and untar the Apache Source 3.2. mod_ssl
3.3. mod_perl
3.4. Configure and build Apache

4. Additional modules

4.1. mod_dav
4.2. auth_ldap
4.3. mod_auth_mysql
4.4. mod_dynvhost
4.5. mod_roaming

5. Compressed delivery

5.1. mod_gzip
5.2. mod_gunzip

6. mod_php and its prerequisites

6.1. What is mod_php
6.2. Prerequisites
6.3. Building and installing PHP4

7. PHP extensions

7.1. APC (Alternative PHP-cache)
7.2. Zend-Optimizer (Do NOT combine with APC-Cache!)

8. Jakarta Tomcat

8.1. What is Tomcat
8.2. Prerequisites
8.3. Download the binaries
8.4. mod_jk

9. Further Information

9.1. News groups
9.2. Mailing Lists
9.3. HOWTO
9.4. Local Resources
9.5. Web Sites

10. Questions and Answers

Warning Security hole in Apache older than 1.3.26

        Do NOT use any Apache version older than 1.3.26. See [http://        
        www.cert.org/advisories/CA-2002-17.html] http://www.cert.org/        
        advisories/CA-2002-17.html for more information                      

  1. Introduction

1.1. Contributors and Contacts

First I would thank all those people who send questions and suggestions that made a further development of this document possible. It shows me, sharing knowledge is the right way. I would encourage you to send me more suggestion, just write me an email <luc at delouw.ch>.


1.2. Why I wrote this document

All Linux distributions I tested had a non-optimal default setup of Apache. Additionally all major distributions don't have current versions of Apache.

Finally most commercial Unix are delivered without pre-installed Apache, or using a very strange setup.

Since I am installing a lot of customized webservers on different Unixes therefor I wrote a plaintext document and placed it on my website so I can access it at work. Later a friend posted the URL to a mailinglist, and the first questions arrived. So I decided to put more information on the page.

After a lot of people requested the document as an »official« HOWTO written in SGML, I decided to prepare it to be one.


1.3. What this document is supposed to be

Compiling all the items described below needs a lot of configure-options that nobody can memorize. This is supposed to be a copy-paste-ready text to compile Apache and friends.

Also, people should learn how to build a full-featured Apache webserver by themself to be independent from any Linux distributors.


1.4. What this document doesn't do for you

It is just a Document, not a script that makes the work for you. You have to do all the steps by yourself.


1.5. Platforms

The original document was for all major Unix platforms. Now the HOWTOs are separated for each platform. You will find the same document adapted for:

  * Linux (This Document)

  * IBM AIX 4.3 and 5.1L

  * Sun Solaris 6/7/8

  * Hewlett-Packard HP-UX 11

  * {Free|Net|Open}-BSD

Important Notice for users running Linux on IBM S/390 (zSeries): PostgreSQL and Jserv wont compile on that system. All other programs and modules mentioned in the HOWTO are working perfectly

Other Unix platforms: Feel free to create a guest-account for me on your Unix platform, so I can have a look at the differences.

Windows-Users: I'm sorry, I'm too young for a heart-attack, You will need to upgrade your machine to a »real« operating system ;-)


1.6. Copyright Information

This document is copyrighted (c) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 Luc de Louw and is distributed under the terms of the Linux Documentation Project (LDP) license, stated below.

Unless otherwise stated, Linux HOWTO documents are copyrighted by their respective authors. Linux HOWTO documents may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in part, in any medium physical or electronic, as long as this copyright notice is retained on all copies. Commercial redistribution is allowed and encouraged; however, the author would like to be notified of any such distributions.

All translations, derivative works, or aggregate works incorporating any Linux HOWTO documents must be covered under this copyright notice. That is, you may not produce a derivative work from a HOWTO and impose additional restrictions on its distribution. Exceptions to these rules may be granted under certain conditions; please contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator at the address given below.

In short, we wish to promote dissemination of this information through as many channels as possible. However, we do wish to retain copyright on the HOWTO documents, and would like to be notified of any plans to redistribute the HOWTOs.

If you have any questions, please contact <linux-howto at metalab.unc.edu>

1.7. Disclaimer

No liability for the contents of this documents can be accepted. Use the concepts, examples and other content at your own risk. As this is a new edition of this document, there may be errors and inaccuracies, that may of course be damaging to your system. Proceed with caution, and although this is highly unlikely, the author(s) do not take any responsibility for that.

All copyrights are held by their by their respective owners, unless specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before major installation and backups at regular intervals.


1.8. New Versions

This is the 15th Revision

New revisions of this document will be announced at [http://freshmeat.net/ projects/apache-compile-howto/?topic_id=905] http://freshmeat.net/projects/ apache-compile-howto/?topic_id=905

The latest version of this document is to be found at [http://www.delouw.ch/ linux] http://www.delouw.ch/linux

  * [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/Apache-Compile-HOWTO/html/index.html] HTML.

  * [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/Apache-Compile-HOWTO/Apache-Compile-HOWTO.ps]

Postscript (ISO A4 format).

  * [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/Apache-Compile-HOWTO/

Apache-Compile-HOWTO.pdf] Acrobat PDF.

  * [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/Apache-Compile-HOWTO/

Apache-Compile-HOWTO.sgml] SGML Source.

  * [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/Apache-Compile-HOWTO/

Apache-Compile-HOWTO.html.tar.gz] HTML gzipped tarball.


1.9. Credits

I would thank all the nice people at < discuss at linuxdoc.org> for supporting me in writing HOWTOs


1.10. Feedback

Feedback is most certainly welcome for this document. Without your submissions and input, this document wouldn't exist. Please send your additions, comments and critics to the following email address : <luc at delouw.ch>.


1.11. Translations

At the moment there are translations available for:

  * [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/DE-Apache-Compile-HOWTO/html/index.html]

German

  * [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/FR-Apache-Compile-HOWTO/html/index.html]

French

Translations to other languages are always welcome. If you translated this document, please let me know, so I can set a link here.


1.12. About the author

Luc (in english Luke) is 29 years old, playing around with computers since 20years. Currently he is working as Unix System Engineer for an IT-corporation located in Kloten (Zurich), Switzerland. Main-focus is developing all flavors of innovative Systems running on Linux (and other Un* xes) . Further, for all major Un*x platforms all the ??impossible?? tasks will end up on his desk (yes, its funny and he loves it!)


2. Prerequisites

2.1. General

  * flex 2.54

  * bison 1.28

  * autoconf 2.52

  * automake 1.4

  * libtool 1.4

  * yacc 91.7.30

  * freetype2-devel [1]

  * re2c [2]

To be continued

All major distributions should include this general prerequisites.

2.2. OpenSSL

2.2.1. What is OpenSSL

        The OpenSSL Project is a collaborative effort to develop a          
        robust, commercial-grade, full-featured, and Open Source            
        toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3)           
        and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as a        
        full-strength general purpose cryptography library. The             
        project is managed by a worldwide community of volunteers           
        that use the Internet to communicate, plan, and develop the         
        OpenSSL toolkit and its related documentation.                      
                                                                            
        OpenSSL is based on the excellent SSLeay library developed          
        by Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson. The OpenSSL toolkit is          
        licensed under an Apache-style license, which basically             
        means that you are free to get and use it for commercial and        
        non-commercial purposes subject to some simple license              
        conditions.                                                         
                                                                            
        From authors points of view, its the basic to build a secure        
        Unix-Server with Opensource Software, its needed for all            
        major products like mod_ssl, OpenSSH and lot of other stuff         
        that provides encrypted Data-processing                             
                                                   --www.openssl.org        

OpenSSL provides the libraries and include-files needed be the products mentioned above and also provides a Application to build Server and client-Certificates.


2.2.2. Download the source

Origin-Site [http://www.openssl.org] http://www.openssl.org

2.2.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|tar -xvzf openssl-0.9.7.tar.gz                                             |
|                                                                           |
|cd openssl-0.9.7                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|./config shared                                                            |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make test                                                                  |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|echo "/usr/local/ssl/lib" >> /etc/ld.so.conf                               |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Tip Select your CPU to improve speed   By default the Makefile generates code for the i486 CPU. You can change

this by editing the Makefile after running config shared. Search for -m486 and replace it i.e with -march=athlon


2.3. GNU Database System

2.3.1. What is gdbm

        GNU dbm is a set of database routines that use extensible           
        hashing. It works similar to the standard UNIX dbm routines.        
                                         --www.gnu.org/software/gdbm        

The GNU dbm is a very important application used by almost every distribution. So it is installed by default on all distributions I tested.

In all probability the needed header files which are mandatory to build Apache with mod_rewrite and PHP are not installed by default. Please consult your distributions CD/DVD and install the devel package (The version can vary):
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+ |rpm -i gdbm-devel-1.8.0-546 | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This procedure is verified for SuSE and Redhat. Please confirm for other RPM based systems like Mandrake. Debian will follow as soon as possible.

Users of Debian bases systems can install gdbm as follow:

|apt-get install libgdbmg1-dev | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


2.3.2. Building and installing by yourself

In the unlikely case that your distribution does not contain gdbm here the instructions how to build it.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|./configure                                                                |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


2.4. MySQL

2.4.1. What is MySQL

MySQL is a very fast, powerful and very nice to handle Database.

Especially for webapplications where most access is read and few write, MySQL is the first choice. The newest Version is also transaction-capable. If you plan a Webapplication, that writes a lot of Data into the DB, maybe PostgreSQL is better suited for your project see Section 6.2.4 for installation hints

You need the C-API from MySQL for compiling PHP if you wish MySQL-Support in PHP. It is also needed if you want to use mod_authmysql, See Section 4.3 for more information


2.4.2. Download

Origin-Site: [http://www.mysql.com/downloads/] http://www.mysql.com/downloads /


2.4.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|tar -xvzf mysql-3.23.55.tar.gz                                             |
|cd mysql-3.23.55                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|./configure \                                                              |
|--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \                                                |
|--enable-assembler \                                                       |
|--with-innodb \                                                            |
|--without-debug                                                            |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db                                      |
|echo /usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql >> /etc/ld.so.conf                         |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

For security-improvement add a MySQL-user on your system e.g. »mysql«.

|chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You may wish to start MySQL automatically at boottime, copy /usr/local/mysql/ share/mysql/mysql.server to /etc/init.d/ (or wherever your rc-script are located) and create the corresponding symbolic link in the runlevel directories.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cp /usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/init.d/                  |
|                                                                           |
|ln -s /etc/init.d/mysql.server /etc/init.d/rc3.d/S20mysql                  |
|ln -s /etc/init.d/mysql.server /etc/init.d/rc3.d/K20mysql                  |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


2.4.4. Securing MySQL

This part is only optional, and describes how to bind the MySQL daemon to the localhost IP

I suggest to just bind MySQL to the loopback-interface 127.0.0.1. This makes sure nobody can connect to your MySQL-Daemon via the network. But of course it only makes sense if MySQL runs on the same box like the webserver.

edit /etc/init.d/mysql.server and edit line 107 as following:

Original line:

|$bindir/safe_mysqld --datadir=$datadir --pid-file=$pid_file& | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Changed line:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|$bindir/safe_mysqld --datadir=$datadir --pid-file=$pid_file \              |
|--bind-address=127.0.0.1& (1)                                              |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

(1) Here you can define to which interface MySQL should be bound

Alternatively you can completely disable the networking functionality of MySQL.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|$bindir/safe_mysqld --datadir=$datadir --pid-file=$pid_file \              |
|--skip-networking &                                                        |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


2.5. Building mm

2.5.1. What is mm

        The MM library is a 2-layer abstraction library which               
        simplifies the usage of shared memory between forked (and           
        this way strongly related) processes under Unix platforms.          
        On the first layer it hides all platform dependent                  
        implementation details (allocation and locking) when dealing        
        with shared memory segments and on the second layer it              
        provides a high-level malloc(3)-style API for a convenient          
        and well known way to work with data-structures inside those        
        shared memory segments.                                             
                                               --www.engelschall.com        

It is a common library that enables Unix programmers to simplify shm (Shared memory) accesses. It is used by many products, e.g. PHP and mod_ssl


2.5.2. Download

Origin Site: [ftp://ftp.ossp.org/pkg/lib/mm/mm-1.2.2.tar.gz] ftp:// ftp ftp.ossp.org/pkg/lib/mm/mm-1.2.2.tar.gz


2.5.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf mm-1.2.2.tar.gz                                                  |
|                                                                           |
|cd mm-1.2.2                                                                |
|                                                                           |
|./configure                                                                |
|make                                                                       |
|make test                                                                  |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


3. Getting, build and install Apache with its basic modules

3.1. Get and untar the Apache Source

3.1.1. What is Apache

        The Apache Project is a collaborative software development          
        effort aimed at creating a robust, commercial-grade,                
        featureful, and freely-available source code implementation         
        of an HTTP (Web) server. The project is jointly managed by a        
        group of volunteers located around the world, using the             
        Internet and the Web to communicate, plan, and develop the          
        server and its related documentation. These volunteers are          
        known as the Apache Group. In addition, hundreds of users           
        have contributed ideas, code, and documentation to the              
        project. This file is intended to briefly describe the              
        history of the Apache Group and recognize the many                  
        contributors.                                                       
                                                    --www.apache.org        

It is simply the best Webserver-Software, it is very flexible to configure to match your needs, and it is E-X-T-R-E-M-E stable. I personally never experienced a crash in a productive (=non-experimental stuff) environment


3.1.2. Download the source

Origin-Site [http://www.apache.org/dist/httpd/] http://www.apache.org/dist/ httpd/
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local/                                                             |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf apache_1.3.27.tar.gz                                             |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


3.1.3. Patch for large-scale sites

If your webserver should answer very much requests at the same time, and your machine is strong enough to serve such an amount of requests, you can change the limit of maximum running processes

Download the patch from: [http://www.delouw.ch/linux/ apache-patch_HARD_SERVER_LIMIT.txt] http://www.delouw.ch/linux/ apache-patch_HARD_SERVER_LIMIT.txt
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|--- httpd.h     Thu Mar 21 18:07:34 2002                                   |
|+++ httpd.h-new Sun Apr  7 13:34:11 2002                                   |
|@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@                                                        |
| #elif defined(NETWARE)                                                    |
| #define HARD_SERVER_LIMIT 2048                                            |
| else                                                                     |
|-define HARD_SERVER_LIMIT 256                                             |
|+#define HARD_SERVER_LIMIT 512                                             |
| #endif                                                                    |
| #endif                                                                    |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This patch does increase the maximum concurrent accessing clients to 512. Feel free to increase it further, if you hacked your kernel and edited your / etc/security/limits.conf

Caution Avoid running out of tasks

        With wrong settings this could end as a »                            
        self-denial-of-service-attack« Be sure you have enough processes left
        for root)                                                            

Apply the patch using:

|cd /usr/local/apache_1.3.27/src/include                                    |
|                                                                           |
|patch -p0 < apache-patch_HARD_SERVER_LIMIT.txt                             |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


3.2. mod_ssl

3.2.1. What is mod_ssl

        This module provides strong cryptography for the Apache 1.3         
        webserver via the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and              
        Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols by the help of          
        the Open Source SSL/TLS toolkit OpenSSL, which is based on          
        SSLeay from Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson.                        
                                                    --www.modssl.org        

This module is needed to enable Apache for SSL-Requests (https). It applies a patch to the Apache source-code and extends its API (Application Programming Interface). The result is called EAPI (Extended Application Programming Interface).

Caution Use of compilerflags while compiling modules

        Make sure any module for your Apache server is compiled with the     
        compiler-flag -DEAPI, or your Webserver might crash or can not be    
        started.                                                             

Almost all modules I know adds the -DEAPI flag by themself except mod_jserv and mod_jk


3.2.2. Download the source

Origin-Site:[http://www.modssl.org] http://www.modssl.org

3.2.3. Applying the patch to the Apache source

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local/                                                             |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf mod_ssl-2.8.12-1.3.27.tar.gz                                     |
|cd mod_ssl-2.8.12-1.3.27/                                                  |
|                                                                           |
|./configure --with-apache=../apache_1.3.27                                 |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


3.3. mod_perl

3.3.1. What is mod_perl

        With mod_perl it is possible to write Apache modules                
        entirely in Perl. In addition, the persistent interpreter           
        embedded in the server avoids the overhead of starting an           
        external interpreter and the penalty of Perl start-up time.         
                                                   --perl.apache.org        

mod_perl is a kind of substitute for cgi-bin's. cgi's typically forks a new process for each request, and produces overhead. With mod_perl the perl-interpreter is loaded persistent in the Apache server and does not need to fork processes for each request.


3.3.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://www.apache.org/dist/perl] http://www.apache.org/dist/ perl


3.3.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf mod_perl-1.27.tar.gz                                             |
|                                                                           |
|cd mod_perl-1.27                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|perl Makefile.PL \                                                         |
|EVERYTHING=1 \                                                             |
|APACHE_SRC=../apache_1.3.27/src \                                          |
|USE_APACI=1 \                                                              |
|PREP_HTTPD=1 \                                                             |
|DO_HTTPD=1                                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Caution Mod_perl can not be compiled as DSO

        Do not compile mod_perl as DSO (Dynamic Shared Object)! According to 
        various sources, Apache will crash (I never tried).                  

3.4. Configure and build Apache

Now the two static modules mod_ssl and mod_perl are configured and the Apache Source has been patched, and we can proceed with building Apache.


3.4.1. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|EAPI_MM="/usr/local/mm-1.2.2" SSL_BASE="/usr/local/ssl" \                  |
|./configure \                                                              |
|--enable-module=unique_id \                                                |
|--enable-module=rewrite \                                                  |
|--enable-module=speling \                                                  |
|--enable-module=expires \                                                  |
|--enable-module=info \                                                     |
|--enable-module=log_agent \                                                |
|--enable-module=log_referer \                                              |
|--enable-module=usertrack \                                                |
|--enable-module=proxy \                                                    |
|--enable-module=userdir \                                                  |
|--enable-module=so \                                                       |
|--enable-shared=ssl \                                                      |
|--enable-module=ssl \                                                      |
|--activate-module=src/modules/perl/libperl.a \                             |
|--enable-module=perl                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


3.4.2. Create self-signed SSL-certificate

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local/ssl/bin                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|./openssl req -new > new.cert.csr                                          |
|./openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key                            |
|./openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert \                       |
|-req -signkey new.cert.key -days 999                                       |
|                                                                           |
|cp new.cert.key /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.key/server.key                  |
|cp new.cert.cert /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt                 |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Tip Common name   OpenSSL asks for different things. A common error is to enter a wrong

"common name". This should be the FQHN (Fully Qualified HostName) of your Server, i.e www.foo.org


4. Additional modules

4.1. mod_dav

4.1.1. What is mod_dav

        mod_dav is an Apache module to provide DAV capabilities (RFC        
        2518) for your Apache web server. It is an Open Source              
        module, provided under an Apache-style license.                     
                                                    --www.webdav.org        

From the authors point of view:

DAV means: »Distributed authoring and Versioning«. It allows you to manage your Website similar to a filesystem. It is meant to replace ftp-uploads to your webserver.

DAV is supported by all major web development tools (newer versions) and is going to be a widely accepted standard for webpublishing.


4.1.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://www.webdav.org/mod_dav/] http://www.webdav.org/mod_dav/

4.1.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf mod_dav-1.0.3-1.3.6.tar.gz                                       |
|cd mod_dav-1.0.3-1.3.6                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|./configure --with-apxs=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs                         |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Tip Confusing filename   The filename mod_dav-1.0.3-1.3.6 suggests that it will only run with

Apache 1.3.6 but it actually will run with all Apaches >= 1.3.6


4.2. auth_ldap

4.2.1. What is auth_ldap

        auth_ldap is an LDAP authentication module for Apache, the          
        world's most popular web server. auth_ldap has excellent            
        performance, and supports Apache on both Unix and Windows           
        NT. It also has support for LDAP over SSL, and a mode that          
        lets Frontpage clients manage their web permissions while           
        still using LDAP for authentication.                                
                                                   --www.rudedog.org        

From the authors point of view:

If you like to consolidate your login-facilities to a common user/passwd base, LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is the right way. LDAP is an open standard and widely supported.

Login-facilities for LDAP:

Unix-Logins for Linux, Solaris (others?) FTP-Logins (some ftp-daemons) http Basic Authentication Tarantella Authentication and Role-Management Samba Authentication (2.2.x should support this) LDAP is role based. That means, i.e. you can define a role »manager« assign a user as member and that user can login wherever a manager is allowed to login.


4.2.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://www.rudedog.org/auth_ldap/] http://www.rudedog.org/ auth_ldap/


4.2.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf auth_ldap-1.6.0.tar.gz                                           |
|                                                                           |
|cd auth_ldap-1.6.0                                                         |
|                                                                           |
|./configure --with-apxs=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs \                       |
|--with-sdk=openldap                                                        |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


4.3. mod_auth_mysql

4.3.1. What is mod_auth_mysql

It is a http-Basic Authentication Module. It allows to maintain your user comfortable in a MySQL-Database


4.3.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [ftp://ftp.kciLink.com/pub/mod_auth_mysql.c.gz] ftp:// ftp ftp.kciLink.com/pub/mod_auth_mysql.c.gz


4.3.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|gunzip mod_auth_mysql.c.gz                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs \                                               |
|-c -I/usr/local/mysql/include \                                            |
|-L/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql \                                             |
|-lmysqlclient -lm mod_auth_mysql.c                                         |
|                                                                           |
|cp mod_auth_mysql.so /usr/local/apache/libexec/                            |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Add this line in your httpd.conf:

|LoadModule mysql_auth_module libexec/mod_auth_mysql.so | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

And where the other modules are added:

|AddModule mod_auth_mysql.c | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Take care that the path of MySQL libraries and includes are correct.

Tip Library path   Be sure that /usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql is in /etc/ld.so.conf before

compiling


4.3.4. Sample configuration

Example 1. /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf

|<location /manual/>                                                        |
|  AuthType Basic                                                           |
|  AuthUserfile /dev/null                                                   |
|  AuthName Testing                                                         |
|  AuthGroupFile /dev/null                                                  |
|  AuthMySQLHost localhost                                                  |
|  AuthMySQLCryptedPasswords Off                                            |
|  AuthMySQLUser root                                                       |
|  AuthMySQLDB users                                                        |
|  AuthMySQLUserTable user_info                                             |
|  <Limit GET POST>                                                         |
|    require valid-user                                                     |
|  </limit>                                                                 |
|</location>                                                                |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


4.3.4.1. Script for creating the MySQL-Database

just type:

|mysql < authmysql.sql | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The File authmysql.sql contents:

Example 2. authmysql.sql

|  create database http_users;                                              |
|  connect http_users;                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|  CREATE TABLE user_info (                                                 |
|  user_name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,                                             |
|  user_passwd CHAR(20) NOT NULL,                                           |
|  user_group CHAR(10),                                                     |
|  PRIMARY KEY (user_name);                                                 |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


4.4. mod_dynvhost

4.4.1. What is mod_dynvhost

It is a module that allows to define new Virtual Host "on-the-fly". Just create a new Directory in your vhost-path, thats it. It is not need to restart your Webserver

It is a good solution for Mass-Virtual-hosting for ISP's

4.4.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://funkcity.com/0101/projects/dynvhost/mod_dynvhost.tar.gz] http://funkcity.com/0101/projects/dynvhost/mod_dynvhost.tar.gz


4.4.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf mod_dynvhost.tar.gz                                              |
|                                                                           |
|cd dynvhost/                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs -i -a -c mod_dynvhost.c                         |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Tip Check httpd.conf   Notice: Take a look at httpd.conf if mod_dynvhost.so is loaded at

startup: +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+ |LoadModule dynvhost_module libexec/mod_dynvhost.so | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+


4.4.4. Sample configuration

Example 3. /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf

|<DynamicVirtualHost /usr/local/apache/htdocs/vhosts/>                      |
|  HomeDir /                                                                |
|</DynamicVirtualHost>                                                      |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Now create a Directory for each virtualhost in /usr/local/apache/htdocs/ vhosts/

i.e.

/usr/local/apache/htdocs/vhosts/foo.bar.org

You don't need to restart your Webserver

4.5. mod_roaming

4.5.1. What is mod_roaming

        With mod_roaming you can use your Apache webserver as a             
        Netscape Roaming Access server. This allows you to store            
        your Netscape Communicator 4.5 preferences, bookmarks,              
        address books, cookies etc. on the server so that you can           
        use (and update) the same settings from any Netscape                
        Communicator 4.5 that can access the server.                        
                                        --www.klomp.org/mod_roaming/        

From the authors point of view:

Mod_roaming is indeed valuable. Unfortunately it does not work over proxy-connection. You can keep your Netscape 4.x bookmarks etc. synchronized on different machines. It is not supported by any other browsers, including Mozilla and Netscape 6.x.


4.5.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://www.klomp.org/mod_roaming/] http://www.klomp.org/ mod_roaming/


4.5.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf mod_roaming-1.0.2.tar.gz                                         |
|                                                                           |
|cd mod_roaming-1.0.2                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs -i -a -c mod_roaming.c                          |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Tip Check httpd.conf   Check httpd.conf if mod_roaming is loaded at startup:

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+ |LoadModule roaming_module libexec/mod_roaming.so | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+


4.5.4. Sample configuration

Example 4. /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf

|RoamingAlias /roaming /usr/local/apache/roaming                            |
|<Directory /usr/local/apache/roaming>                                      |
|  AuthUserFile /usr/local/apache/conf/roaming-htpasswd                     |
|  AuthType Basic                                                           |
|  AuthName "Roaming Access"                                                |
|  <Limit GET PUT MOVE DELETE>                                              |
|    require valid-user                                                     |
|  </Limit>                                                                 |
|</Directory>                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


5. Compressed delivery

There are basically two modules available for output compression: mod_gzip and mod_gunzip. They are using different approaches to reach the the goal of bandwidth reduction.

mod_gunzip expects compressed file on the filesystem, and uncompress them if the browser cannot handle compressed data. The benefit is a low cpu-usage, because most browsers are capable to handle gzipped content. On the oder side, most of today's content is served dynamically i.e. PHP, and this content will be delivered uncompressed.

mod_gzip does not need compressed files on the system, all defined content will be compressed before delivery. The benefit is to have the dynamically generated content also compressed, the other side is a higher cpu-usage, because every request has to be compressed on-the-fly. Mod_gzip can handle already compressed data i.e. index.html.gz and send it as-is.

The conclusion: You carefully have to make a decision which of the two modules makes more sense for you. If you have to pay for every GB delivered and CPU-power does not matter, then mod_gzip is the choice for you. If response time matters (delay between request and delivery), and your bandwidth is cheap or unlimited, mod_gunzip matches your needs better.

A good page that helps you to make this decision is Martin Kiff's document about mod_gunzip [http://www.innerjoin.org/apache-compression/howto.html] http://www.innerjoin.org/apache-compression/howto.html


5.1. mod_gzip

5.1.1. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/mod-gzip/ mod_gzip-1.3.26.1a.tgz?download] http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/mod-gzip/ mod_gzip-1.3.26.1a.tgz?download


5.1.2. Building and installing

To successfully compile mod_gzip you need to edit the Makefile and provide the correct path to apxs
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


5.1.3. Sample configuration

Put the following in your /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf:

Example 5. /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf

|mod_gzip_on                 Yes                                            |
|mod_gzip_can_negotiate      Yes                                            |
|mod_gzip_dechunk            Yes                                            |
|mod_gzip_minimum_file_size  600                                            |
|mod_gzip_maximum_file_size  0                                              |
|mod_gzip_maximum_inmem_size 100000                                         |
|mod_gzip_keep_workfiles     No                                             |
|mod_gzip_temp_dir           /usr/local/apache/gzip                         |
|mod_gzip_item_include       file \.html$                                   |
|mod_gzip_item_include       file \.txt$                                    |
|mod_gzip_item_include       file \.jsp$                                    |
|mod_gzip_item_include       file \.php$                                    |
|mod_gzip_item_include       file \.pl$                                     |
|mod_gzip_item_include       mime ^text/.*                                  |
|mod_gzip_item_include       mime ^application/x-httpd-php                  |
|mod_gzip_item_include       mime ^httpd/unix-directory$                    |
|mod_gzip_item_include       handler ^perl-script$                          |
|mod_gzip_item_include       handler ^server-status$                        |
|mod_gzip_item_include       handler ^server-info$                          |
|mod_gzip_item_exclude       file \.css$                                    |
|mod_gzip_item_exclude       file \.js$                                     |
|mod_gzip_item_exclude       mime ^image/.*                                 |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You may whish to log the result of the compression to your accesslog. This can be done by changing the LogFormat directive in /usr/local/apache/conf/ httpd.conf
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ |LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" mod_gzip: %{mod_gzip_compression_ratio}npct." combined| +------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+


5.2. mod_gunzip

5.2.1. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://www.oldach.net/mod_gunzip.tar.gz] http://www.oldach.net/ mod_gunzip.tar.gz


5.2.2. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|tar -xvzf mod_gunzip.tar.gz                                                |
|cd mod_gunzip-2                                                            |
|                                                                           |
|/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs -i -a -c -lz mod_gunzip.c                       |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


5.2.3. Sample configuration

Put the following in your /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf:

Example 6. /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf

|AddType text/html .htmz                                                    |
|AddHandler send-gunzipped .htmz                                            |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Now you can gzip your html files and rename them to i.e:

|gzip index.html                                                            |
|mv index.html.gz index.htmz                                                |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Of course you have to change all links to htmz, i.e. <a href="page.htmz">Some page</a>


6. mod_php and its prerequisites

6.1. What is mod_php

        PHP is a server-side, cross-platform, HTML embedded                 
        scripting language.                                                 
                                                                            
        In the beginning it was just a simple guestbook-processor,          
        and it was growing and growing Since Version 3 it is really         
        powerful Webdevelopment-language                                    
                                                       --www.php.net        

Since Version 4 PHP capable and robust enough for enterprise webapplications. It is powerful, supports almost all important databases natively, and other through ODBC (Open DataBase Connectivity). It a few times faster than ASP on Windows Systems on the same Hardware.

There are other extensions available like APC (Alternative PHP Cache), which speed up processing about 50-400% (depends on the php-code you wrote)


6.2. Prerequisites

Depending on your needs there are some software to install first. One already installed Software according this document is MySQL, because its needed by mod_auth_mysql.


6.2.1. IMAP client

6.2.1.1. What is IMAP client

IMAP means »Internet Mail Application Protocol« and is a substitute for the POP (Post Office Protocol) protocol. It allows to keep all Mails in different folders on the server, which (should) be backed up - Never again lose important email, because your local harddrive crashed


6.2.2. Download the source

Origin-Site:

Origin-Site: [http://www.washington.edu/imap/] http://www.washington.edu/imap /


6.2.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvfz imap.tar.Z                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|cd imap                                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|make slx SSLTYPE=nopwd (1)                                                 |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

(1) With the parameter SSLTYPE=unix you define if you need SSL support or

not. Omitting means no SSL support.

Tip Filename to download   imap.tar.Z is usually a symlink to the latest release, today its linked

to imap-2001a.tar.Z


6.2.4. PostgreSQL

6.2.4.1. What is PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is a very powerful and fast Database

Like MySQL wonderful for Webapplications. From my Point of view, not as comfortable to handle as MySQL. If your Webapplication performs mostly writes, or you need proofed transaction-capabilities, PostgreSQL is your friend


6.2.4.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://www.postgresql.org] http://www.postgresql.org (Select a mirror close to you)


6.2.4.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf postgresql-7.3.2.tar.gz                                          |
|                                                                           |
|cd postgresql-7.3.2                                                        |
|                                                                           |
|./configure \                                                              |
|--with-perl \                                                              |
|--enable-odbc \                                                            |
|--with-unixodbc  \                                                         |
|--with-pam \                                                               |
|--with-openssl \                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|echo /usr/local/pgsql/lib >> /etc/ld.so.conf                               |
|                                                                           |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


6.2.5. Sablotron

6.2.5.1. What is Sablotron

        Sablotron is a fast, compact and portable XML toolkit               
        implementing XSLT 1.0, DOM Level2 and XPath 1.0. Sablotron          
        is an open project; other users and developers are                  
        encouraged to use it or to help us testing or improving it.         
        The goal of this project is to create a lightweight,                
        reliable and fast XML library processor conforming to the           
        W3C specification, which is available for public and can be         
        used as a base for multi-platform XML applications.                 
                 --http://www.gingerall.com/charlie/ga/xml/p_sab.xml        

6.2.5.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://download-2.gingerall.cz/download/sablot/ Sablot-0.97.tar.gz] http://download-2.gingerall.cz/download/sablot/ Sablot-0.97.tar.gz


6.2.5.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|tar -xvzf Sablot-0.97.tar.gz                                               |
|cd Sablot-0.97                                                             |
|                                                                           |
|./configure                                                                |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


6.2.6. pdflib

6.2.6.1. What is pdflib

        PDFlib: A library for generating PDF on the fly PDFlib is           
        the premier software component if you want to generate PDF          
        on your server, convert text and graphics, or implement PDF         
        output in your own products.                                        
                                                    --www.pdflib.com        

From the authors point of view:

Caution This is a commercial product

        PDFLIB is a commercial Product. Read the license carefully to see if 
        you need a commercial license or not                                 

6.2.6.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://www.pdflib.com/pdflib/download/pdflib-4.0.3.tar.gz] http://www.pdflib.com/pdflib/download/pdflib-4.0.3.tar.gz


6.2.6.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local/                                                             |
|tar -xvzf pdflib-4.0.3.tar.gz                                              |
|                                                                           |
|cd pdflib-4.0.3                                                            |
|                                                                           |
|./configure --enable-shared-pdflib --enable-cxx                            |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


6.2.7. gettext

6.2.7.1. What is gettext

gettext is a library for i18n (Internationalization, "I", 18 chars and "n") of software, and needed by php


6.2.7.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gettext] ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gettext (select a mirror close to you)


6.2.7.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf gettext-0.11.2.tar.gz                                            |
|                                                                           |
|cd gettext-0.11.2                                                          |
|                                                                           |
|./configure                                                                |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make check                                                                 |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


6.2.8. zlib

6.2.8.1. What is zlib

zlib is a lossless data-compression library for use on virtually any computer hardware and operating system


6.2.8.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/zlib/zlib-1.1.4.tar.gz] ftp: //ftp ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/zlib/zlib-1.1.4.tar.gz (select a mirror close to you)


6.2.8.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf zlib-1.1.4.tar.gz                                                |
|                                                                           |
|cd zlib-1.1.4/                                                             |
|                                                                           |
|./configure                                                                |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make test                                                                  |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|ldconfig                                                                   |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


6.3. Building and installing PHP4

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf php-4.3.0.tar.gz                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|cd php-4.3.0                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|export LDFLAGS=-lstdc++                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|./configure \                                                              |
|--with-apxs=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs \                                   |
|--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \                                            |
|--with-pgsql=/usr/local/pgsql \                                            |
|--enable-track-vars \                                                      |
|--with-openssl=/usr/local/ssl \                                            |
|--with-imap=/usr/local/imap \                                              |
|--with-gd --with-ldap \                                                    |
|--enable-ftp \                                                             |
|--enable-sysvsem \                                                         |
|--enable-sysvshm \                                                         |
|--enable-sockets \                                                         |
|--with-pdflib=/usr/local \                                                 |
|--with-gettext \                                                           |
|--with-mm=/usr/local/mm-1.1.3 \                                            |
|--with-jpeg-dir=/usr/lib \                                                 |
|--with-zlib-dir=/usr/local \                                               |
|--enable-wddx \                                                            |
|--with-mcrypt \                                                            |
|--with-mhash \                                                             |
|--with-mcal=/usr \                                                         |
|--enable-exif \                                                            |
|--enable-xslt \                                                            |
|--with-xslt-sablot=/usr/local \                                            |
|--with-dom \                                                               |
|--with-dom-xslt \                                                          |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Edit the Makefile and add -lstdc++ to the variable EXTRA_LIBS. This is currently only needed, when using Sablotron version 0.9.7 +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

After installing your httpd.conf is modified by axps. It should now look as follows:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|<IfDefine SSL>                                                             |
|LoadModule ssl_module         libexec/libssl.so                            |
|LoadModule php4_module        libexec/libphp4.so                           |
|</IfDefine>                                                                |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you compiled Apache with mod_ssl then the php-module will only be loaded when staring Apache with ssl (apachectl startssl). If you will start Apache without ssl support (but compiled like described in this document) you need to change this:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|<IfDefine SSL>                                                             |
|LoadModule ssl_module         libexec/libssl.so                            |
|</IfDefine>                                                                |
|LoadModule php4_module        libexec/libphp4.so                           |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Copy the sample php.ini-dist to /usr/local/lib/php.ini

|cp /usr/local/php-4.3.0/php.ini-dist /usr/local/lib/php.ini | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

uncomment (remove the # at begin of line) the following lines in /usr/local/ apache/conf/httpd.conf

Apache 1.3.27 default httpd.conf does lack of this entries. You have to add them instead of uncommenting
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|AddType application/x-httpd-php .php                                       |
|AddType application/x-httpd-php .phtml                                     |
|AddType application/x-httpd-php .php3                                      |
|                                                                           |
|# If you want to display PHP source                                        |
|                                                                           |
|AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps (1)                           |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

(1) This line is only needed if you like to display sourcecodes in the

browser. The fileextension of such files should be phps. /para>

Tip register_globals   Since PHP Version 4.2.1, »register_globals« are set OFF. This can bring

you in problems running PHP-Code not using the $HTTP_GET_VARS methods. To enable register_globals edit the following line in your /usr/local/lib/ php.ini:+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+ |register_globals = On | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

Please be sure, if you write new software, to use the new methods. Support of old methods will be dropped sooner or later

Restart Apache by issuing the following command:

|/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl restart | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


7. PHP extensions

There are many different extensions available for php, which can be added in your php.ini


7.1. APC (Alternative PHP-cache)

7.1.1. What is APC

        APC is the Alternative PHP Cache. It was conceived of to            
        provide a free, open, and robust framework for compiling and        
        caching php scripts. APC was conceived of to provide a way          
        of boosting the performance of PHP on heavily loaded sites          
        by providing a way for scripts to be cached in a compiled           
        state, so that the overhead of parsing and compiling can be         
        almost completely eliminated. There are commercial products         
        which provide this functionality, but they are neither              
        open-source nor free. Our goal was to level the playing             
        field by providing an implementation that allows greater            
        flexibility and is universally accessible. We also wanted           
        the cache to provide visibility into it's own workings and          
        those of PHP, so time was invested in providing internal            
        diagnostic tools which allow for cache diagnostics and              
        maintenance. Thus arrived APC. Since we were committed to           
        developing a product which can easily grow with new version         
        of PHP, we implemented it as a zend extension, allowing it          
        to either be compiled into PHP or added post facto as a drop        
        in module. As with PHP, it is available completely free for         
        commercial and non-commercial use, under the same terms as          
        PHP itself. APC has been tested under PHP 4.0.3, 4.0.3pl1           
        and 4.0.4. It currently compiles under Linux and FreeBSD.           
        Patches for ports to other OSs/ PHP versions are welcome.           
                                     --www.apc.communityconnect.com/        

The author made some performance-Tests with apc and it was real surprise. A PHP-Webpage with MySQL-queries in a loop (total 10 queries) was more than 50% faster

Contra APC: If you have other users on the system coding php they maybe are not comfortable with APC, because the changes are all ignored unless you reset the cache or restart Apache. The other way, namely that APC checks the php-script for a newer version before every run costs speed.


7.1.2. Download the source

Origin-Site: [http://apc.communityconnect.com/sources/apc-cvs.tar.gz] http:// apc.communityconnect.com/sources/apc-cvs.tar.gz


7.1.3. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf apc-cvs.tar.gz                                                   |
|                                                                           |
|cd apc                                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|./configure --enable-apc --with-php-config=/usr/local/bin/php-config       |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|cp modules/php_apc.so /usr/local/lib/php/extensions                        |
|                                                                           |
|echo 'zend_extension="/usr/local/lib/php/extensions/php_apc.so"' \         |
|>> /usr/local/lib/php.ini                                                  |
|echo ??apc.mode = shm?? >> \                                               |
|apc.mode = shm                                                             |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Restart your Apache-Webserver. Try it out, create a php-file with the following content:

Example 7. apctest.php

|<?php                                                                      |
|apcinfo();                                                                 |
|?>                                                                         |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


7.2. Zend-Optimizer (Do NOT combine with APC-Cache!)

7.2.1. What is Zend-optimizer

        The Zend Optimizer goes over the intermediate code generated        
        by the standard Zend run-time compiler located in the Zend          
        Engine, and then optimizes it for faster execution.                 
                                                      --www.zend.com        

Zend-Optimizer is a freeware closed source product. On the same testcode used for the APC-test, there was speed-decrease of about 5% compared to PHP without APC.

You have to make your own test, to see, if you have some improvements with your own code. Be sure not to NOT use Zend Optimizer together with APC, or your whole setup will not work.


7.2.2. Download the binary

Origin-Site: [https://www.zend.com/store/free_download.php?pid=13] https:// www.zend.com/store/free_download.php?pid=13

Tip Register at zend.com   You have to register yourself at zend.com to get access to the

download-page


7.2.3. Installing

There is noting to build, this product is closed-source and so only available as binary for different platforms. The filename varies according your platform, the sample is for Linux on IA32. +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf ZendOptimizer-2.1.0-Linux_glibc21-i386.tar.gz                    |
|                                                                           |
|cd ZendOptimizer-2.1.0-Linux_glibc21-i386                                  |
|                                                                           |
|./install.sh                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The install script is self-explanatory, if you compiled Apache and PHP like described in this document, you can just press ENTER on all questions about the pathnames.


8. Jakarta Tomcat

8.1. What is Tomcat

        Tomcat is the servlet container that is used in the official        
        Reference Implementation for the Java Servlet and JavaServer        
        Pages technologies. The Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages           
        specifications are developed by Sun under the Java Community        
        Process.                                                            
                                                                            
        From the authors point of view:                                     
                                                --jakarta.apache.org        

Tomcat is the successor of jserv which is no longer developed. Tomcat supports the latest jsp and servlet-APIs defined by sun. Unfortunately Tomcat is very difficult to build from source, because it is using its own building-system called "ant". There is also a very long list of prerequisites if you want to build from source. See [http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/ tomcat-4.0-doc/BUILDING.txt] http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-4.0-doc/ BUILDING.txt for more details - Good luck, and give some feedback to the author.

In the meantime the HOWTO is providing some basic support for Tomcat installed from binaries.

The Author is searching for some volunteers who tries to build Tomcat from source and tells what steps are required


8.2. Prerequisites

8.2.1. Java2

8.2.1.1. What is Java2

Please see java.sun.com

Too much for this HOWTO, please see [http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/ relnotes/features.html] http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/relnotes/ features.html


8.2.2. Download the binaries

Go to [http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/] http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/ [3] ,choose your platform and follow the steps on the site.


8.2.3. Installing the binaries

Execute the binary:

|chmod +x j2sdk-1_3_1_02-linux-i386.bin                                     |
|                                                                           |
|./2sdk-1_3_1_02-linux-i386.bin                                             |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

After accepting the license, unpack the stuff and move the resulting directory to /usr/lib and set an appropriate symbolic link


8.3. Download the binaries

Origin-Site: [http://jakarta.apache.org/builds/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/release/ v4.1.18/src/jakarta-tomcat-4.1.18-src.tar.gz] http://jakarta.apache.org/ builds/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/release/v4.1.18/src/ jakarta-tomcat-4.1.18-src.tar.gz


8.3.1. Installing the binaries

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|cd /usr/local                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|tar -xvzf jakarta-tomcat-4.1.8.tar.gz                                      |
|                                                                           |
|cd jakarta-tomcat-4.1.8                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|cd bin                                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|rm *.bat                                                                   |
|                                                                           |
|echo export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/java/ >> /etc/profile                       |
|. /etc/profile                                                             |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

To enable the Tomcat manager, you need to modify /usr/local/ jakarta-tomcat-4.1.8/conf/tomcat-users.xml add a user »admin« or with the role »manager«. The result should look like this: +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>                                     |
|<tomcat-users>                                                             |
|  <role rolename="manager"/>                                               |
|  <role rolename="tomcat"/>                                                |
|  <role rolename="role1"/>                                                 |
|  <user username="admin" password="secret" roles="manager"/>               |
|  <user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/>               |
|  <user username="role1" password="tomcat" roles="role1"/>                 |
|  <user username="both" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat,role1"/>           |
|</tomcat-users>                                                            |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Now you should be able to startup tomcat:

|/usr/local/apache/jakarta-tomcat-4.1.8/bin/startup.sh | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You should now be able to connect to: [http://localhost:8080/index.jsp] http: //localhost:8080/index.jsp


8.4. mod_jk

8.4.1. Download the source

If you like to have a native interface into your Apache Webserver, you need to build mod_jk with must be downloaded separately here: [http:// jakarta.apache.org/builds/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/release/v4.1.18/src/ jakarta-tomcat-connectors-4.1.18-src.tar.gz] http://jakarta.apache.org/builds /jakarta-tomcat-4.0/release/v4.1.18/src/ jakarta-tomcat-connectors-4.1.18-src.tar.gz.


8.4.2. Building and installing

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|tar -xvzf jakarta-tomcat-connectors-4.1.18-src.tar.gz                      |
|                                                                           |
|cd jakarta-tomcat-connectors-4.1.18-src/jk/native                          |
|                                                                           |
|./buildconf                                                                |
|./configure --with-apxs=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs                         |
|                                                                           |
|make                                                                       |
|make install                                                               |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


8.4.3. Customizing

Now follows the annoying part, the customizing of the config files. First edit /usr/local/jakarta-tomcat-connectors-4.1.18-src/jk/conf/ workers.properties, and copy the file to /usr/local/apache/conf

I made a sample workers.properties that works with the example JSPs and servlets that comes with the Tomcat distribution. It is based on the sample workers.properties from Tomcat

Example 8. workers.properties

|workers.tomcat_home=/usr/local/jakarta-tomcat-4.1.18                                             |
|                                                                                                 |
| workers.java_home should point to your Java installation. Normally                             |
| you should have a bin and lib directories beneath it.                                          |
|                                                                                                |
|workers.java_home=/usr/lib/java2                                                                 |
|                                                                                                 |
| You should configure your environment slash... ps=\ on NT and / on UNIX                        |
| and maybe something different elsewhere.                                                       |
|                                                                                                |
|ps=/                                                                                             |
|                                                                                                 |
| The workers that your plugins should create and work with                                      |
|                                                                                                |
|worker.list=worker1                                                                              |
|                                                                                                 |
|------ DEFAULT ajp13 WORKER DEFINITION ------------------------------                           |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------                           |
| Defining a worker named ajp13 and of type ajp13                                                |
| Note that the name and the type do not have to match.                                          |
|                                                                                                |
|worker.worker1.port=8009                                                                         |
|worker.worker1.host=localhost                                                                    |
|worker.worker1.type=ajp13                                                                        |
|                                                                                                 |
|------ CLASSPATH DEFINITION -----------------------------------------                           |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------                           |
| Additional class path components.                                                              |
|                                                                                                |
|worker.inprocess.class_path=$(workers.tomcat_home)$(ps)lib$(ps)tomcat.jar                        |
|                                                                                                 |
| The JVM that we are about to use                                                               |
|                                                                                                |
| Unix - Sun VM or blackdown                                                                     |
|worker.inprocess.jvm_lib=$(workers.java_home)$(ps)jre$(ps)lib$(ps)i386$(ps)classic$(ps)libjvm.so |
|                                                                                                 |
| Setting the place for the stdout and stderr of tomcat                                          |
|                                                                                                |
|worker.inprocess.stdout=$(workers.tomcat_home)$(ps)logs$(ps)inprocess.stdout                     |
|worker.inprocess.stderr=$(workers.tomcat_home)$(ps)logs$(ps)inprocess.stderr                     |

+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Next, you need to configure your apache config file httpd.conf. The following example matches the examples provided by Tomcat. +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

|LoadModule jk_module libexec/mod_jk.so                                     |
|AddModule mod_jk.c                                                         |
|                                                                           |
|JkWorkersFile /usr/local/apache/conf/workers.properties                    |
|JkLogFile /var/log/httpd/mod_jk.log                                        |
|JkLogLevel info                                                            |
|JkLogStampFormat "[%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y] "                                 |
|JkOptions +ForwardKeySize +ForwardURICompat -ForwardDirectories            |
|JkRequestLogFormat "%w %V %T"                                              |
|JkMount /examples/servlet/* worker1                                        |
|JkMount /examples/*.jsp worker1                                            |

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

After restarting Apache, you should now be able to connect to your JSP's via Apache. I.e: [http://localhost/examples/jsp/num/numguess.jsp] http:// localhost/examples/jsp/num/numguess.jsp

For the further steps like installing your servlets and jsp-files, you are responsible by yourself...

Tip Environment Variables   If Tomcat fails to start and/or your servlets could not be started the

most common error made is having not all needed classes in the CLASSPATH variable.


9. Further Information

Here are some other resources available on the internet

9.1. News groups

Some of the most interesting news groups are:

  * [news:alt.apache.configuration] alt.apache.configuration

  * [news:comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix]

comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix

  * [news:alt.comp.lang.php] alt.comp.lang.php

  * [news:alt.php] alt.php

  * [news:comp.databases] comp.databases

Also check out your country newsgroups e.g ch.comp.os.linux

Most newsgroups have their own FAQ that are designed to answer most of your questions, as the name Frequently Asked Questions indicate. Fresh versions should be posted regularly to the relevant newsgroups. If you cannot find it in your news spool you could go directly to the [ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/] FAQ main archive FTP site. The WWW versions can be browsed at the FAQ main archive WWW site.


9.2. Mailing Lists


9.2.1. <users@httpd.apache.org>

Send an empty email to <users-subscribe@httpd.apache.org>

Before writing to the list, check out the archive: [http:// marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=apache-httpd-users] http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l= apache-httpd-users


9.2.2. <modperl@apache.org>

Send an mail to <modperl@apache.org> with the content (not subject):

| subscribe modperl | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Before writing to the list, check out the archive: [http:// outside.organic.com/mail-archives/modperl/] http://outside.organic.com/ mail-archives/modperl/


9.2.3. <openssl-users@openssl.org>

Send an mail to <majordomo@openssl.org> with the content (not subject):

| subscribe openssl-users | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Before writing to the list, check out the archive: [http:// www.mail-archive.com/ HREF="mailto:openssl-users@openssl.org">openssl-users@openssl.org/] http://www.mail-archive.com/ openssl-users@openssl.org/


9.2.4. <modssl-users@modssl.org>

Send an mail to <majordomo@modssl.org> with the content (not subject):

| subscribe modssl-users | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Before writing to the list, check out the archive: [http:// www.mail-archive.com/ HREF="mailto:modssl-users@modssl.org">modssl-users@modssl.org/] http://www.mail-archive.com/ modssl-users@modssl.org/


9.2.5. <mysql@lists.mysql.com>

Send an empty mail to <mysql-subscribe@lists.mysql.com>

Before writing to the list, check out the archive: [http://lists.mysql.com/ cgi-ez/ezmlm-cgi/] http://lists.mysql.com/cgi-ez/ezmlm-cgi/


9.2.6. <pgsql-general@postgres.org>

Fill out the subscription form at [http://developer.postgresql.org/ mailsub.php] http://developer.postgresql.org/mailsub.php

Before writing to the list, check out the archive: [http:// archives.postgresql.org/pgsql-general/] http://archives.postgresql.org/ pgsql-general/


9.2.7. <pgsql-general@postgres.org>

Fill out the subscription form at [http://www.php.net/mailing-lists.php] http://www.php.net/mailing-lists.php

There are several php related mailinglist to subscribe, some of them are also available on php.net's newsserver

Before writing to the list, check out the archive that are linked also on the subscription-page


9.2.8. <apc-cache@lists.communityconnect.com>

Send an mail to <apc-cache-request@lists.communityconnect.com> with the content (not subject):
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | subscribe | +---------------------------------------------------------------------------+


9.3. HOWTO

These are intended as the primary starting points to get the background information. They also show you how to solve a specific problem. Some relevant HOWTOs are

[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Apache-Overview-HOWTO.html] Apache-Overview-HOWTO , [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/ Apache-WebDAV-LDAP-HOWTO/index.html] Apache-WebDAV-LDAP-HOWTO , [http:// www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/LDAP-HOWTO.html] LDAP-HOWTO , [http://www.linuxdoc.org /HOWTO/LDAP-Implementation-HOWTO/index.html] LDAP-Implementation-HOWTO and the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/PHP-HOWTO.html] PHP-HOWTO

The main site for these is the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/] LDP archive

9.4. Local Resources

Usually distributions install some documentation on your system. Usually they are located in /usr/share/doc/packages or /usr/local/share/doc

The software products mentioned here provide a lot of documentation in their source-directories. Apache does install its documentation in the default DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/htdocs/manual


9.5. Web Sites

There are a large number of informative web sites available. By their very nature they change quickly, so do not be surprised if these links become outdated very fast.

A good starting point is of course the Linux Documentation Project home page, a central information repository for documentation, project pages and much more.

To get more information about the Software mentioned in this document, then the following sites are good starting points.

  * [http://httpd.apache.org] http://httpd.apache.org

  * [http://www.openssl.org] http://www.openssl.org

  * [http://www.modssl.org] http://www.modssl.org

  * [http://perl.apache.org/] http://perl.apache.org/

  * [http://www.webdav.org] http://www.webdav.org

  * [http://www.mysql.com] http://www.mysql.com

  * [http://www.postgresql.org] http://www.postgresql.org

  * [http://www.pdflib.com] http://www.pdflib.com

  * [http://www.php.net] http://www.php.net

  * [http://www.phpbuilder.com] http://www.phpbuilder.com

Please let me know if you have any other leads that can be of interest.

10. Questions and Answers

  1. FAQ 10.1.1. Is there such a HOWTO for Apache 2.0? 10.1.2. Why you don't add a description howto compile and setup mod_xyz? 10.1.3. If my clients are connecting to https://myserver.org an

    errormessage similar to this appears "Certificate not valid" 10.1.4. When I request a php file, the browser want to download it. Whats

    wrong? 10.1.5. Does this HOWTO also work on other platforms?

  2. FAQ

10.1.1. Is there such a HOWTO for Apache 2.0?

Not yet. The reason is that PHP 4.2.1 supports the Apache 2.0 API only experimentally and the speed of PHP is very poor with Apache 2.0. As the new Apache brings lots of new features and massive speed improvements, I will write such a HOWTO as soon as the PHP support is stable and more performant. I'm collecting now Ideas and wishes from users what they like to see in a Apache 2.0 HOWTO. Feel free to write an email to <luc at delouw dot ch>

10.1.2. Why you don't add a description howto compile and setup mod_xyz?

Because nobody requested it yet and I either did not know about a mod_xyz, or I did not found it useful. Feel free to write me some suggestions what to add to the HOWTO. If there is more than one request, and it makes sense, it will maybe added in further releases.

10.1.3. If my clients are connecting to https://myserver.org an errormessage similar to this appears "Certificate not valid"

  1. The certificate produced like described in this HOWTO is just a self-signed certificate. This means the CA (Certification Authority) is you. Your CA is not recognized as a valid CA by your users browser. You can either install the certificate on your users machines (Makes sense in small Intranet environments) or buy a certificate from a CA that is recognized by all major browsers. An example of such a CA is Verisign [http://www.verisign.com] http: //www.verisign.com. Such a certificate cost approx. 300 USD a year, depending on the strength of the key (56 or 128 Bits)

10.1.4. When I request a php file, the browser want to download it. Whats wrong?

You forgot to tell Apache what to do with the php files. So the php files are not processed by the php engine. To do so, add the application type like described in Section 6.3

10.1.5. Does this HOWTO also work on other platforms?

Not sure, Solaris should work, AIX and HP-UX do not. I did not got the time to try FreeBSD yet. My goal is to provide a version of the HOWTO for all major Un*x platforms.

Notes

[1] This RPM contains the header files needed for php [2] Only needed if PHP is being built from the CVS tree [3] There is also version 1.4.1 of Java available, but Tomcat seems not to

run with that version of Java.


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